English as an Additional Language (EAL)

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Teaching and Learning for pupils with English as an additional language
Identifying the teaching context for EAL learners
Developing language and literacy for EAL learners
Resourcing the teaching of EAL learners

References to the research used in this guide

Adesope, O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2010). A Systematic Review and MetaAnalysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 207 - 245

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006) Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

Baker, C (2011) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Birmingham

Advice and Support Service (2003)(Authors Susan Rosamond, Imtiaz Bhatti, Marion Sharieff, Karen Wilson) Distinguishing the Difference: SEN or EAL?, Birmingham: BASS

Cameron (2003) Writing in English as an additional language at Key Stage 4 and post-16, HMI 1094, London: OFSTED

Cameron, L., & Besser, S. (2004). Writing in English as an additional language at Key Stage 2. London: DfES.

Cameron, L., Moon, J., & Bygate, M. (1996) Language Development of Bilingual Pupils in the Mainstream: How do Pupils and Teachers Use Language? Language and Education, 10 (4), 221-236.

CILT (2006) Positively Plurilingual: The contribution of community languages to UK education and society, London: CLIT

Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19, 121-129.

Cummins, J. (1999) BICS and CALP Explained, ERIC Clearing House Opinion Paper, US Dept of Education

Cummins, J. (2000) Language Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Cummins, J. (2001). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society, 2nd Edition. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education

DCSF (2006) Teaching bilingual children in the primary years, Nottingham: DCSF

DCSF (2009) Ensuring the attainment of more advanced learners of English as an additional language (EAL), Nottingham:DCSF

Demie, F. (2013). English as an additional language pupils: How long does it take to acquire English fluency?. Language and Education, 27(1), 59-69.

Demie, F. (2018). English as an additional language and attainment in primary schools in England. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 39(3), 210-223.

Demie, F., & Lewis, K. (2018). Raising achievement of English as additional language pupils in schools: implications for policy and practice. Educational Review 70(4), 427-446.

DfES (2006) Excellence and Enjoyment: learning and teaching for bilingual children in the primary years. Unit 3 Creating an inclusive learning culture

Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (1998). Background Knowledge, Linguistic Complexity, and SecondLanguage Reading Comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(2), 253-27

Flynn, N. (2013) Encountering migration: English primary school teachers’ responses to Polish children. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 8(4), 336 – 351

Flynn, N. (2019). Teachers and Polish children: Capturing changes in the linguistic field. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 40 (1), 65-82

Flynn, N and Stainthorp, R (2006) The Learning and Teaching of Reading and Writing, Chichester: Wiley

Flynn, N., & Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. (2018). Intentions versus enactment: Making sense of policy and practice for teaching English as an additional language. Language and Education, 32(5), 410-427.

Flynn, N., Teemant, A., Viesca, K. M., & Perumal, R. (2023). Effective Teachers of Multilingual Learners: A Mixed Method Study of UK and US Critical Sociocultural Teaching Practices. TESOL Quarterly.

Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (M. Ramos Bergman, Trans.). Penguin Random House.

Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinmann

Gilborn, D., & Mirza, H. (2000) Educational Inequality: Mapping race, class and gender. London: OfSTED

Gregory, E. (2008). Learning to Read in a New Language. London: Sage

Heineke, A. J., & Vera, E. M. (2022). Beyond Language and Academics: Investigating Teachers’ Preparation to Promote the Social-Emotional Well-Being of Emergent Bilingual Learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 73(2), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/00224871211027573 

Hessel, A. K., & Strand, S. (2023). Proficiency in English is a better predictor of educational achievement than English as an Additional Language (EAL).Educational Review, 75(4), 763-786. 

Kotler, A., Wegerif, R., & Le Voi, M. (2001). Oracy and the Educational Achievement of Pupils with English as an Additional Language: The Impact of Bringing 'Talking Partners' into Bradford Schools. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4(6), 403-419

Krashen, S. (1976) Formal and Informal Linguistic Environments in Language Acquisition and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly, 10(2), 157-168.

Krashen, S. (1981) Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press

Long, S. (2002) Tuning in to teacher-talk: a second language learner struggles to comprehend. Reading, 36(3), 113-118

Li, G. (2005). Other People's Success: Impact of the 'Model Minority' Myth on Underachieving Asian Students in North America. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 2(1), 69 - 86.

Lucas, T. (Ed.). (2010). Teacher preparation for linguistically diverse classrooms: A resource for teacher educators. Routledge.

Lucas, T., Villegas, A. M. & Freedson-Gonzalez, M (2008) “Linguistically Responsive Teacher Education: Preparing Classroom Teachers to Teach English Language Learners”, Journal of Teacher Education, 59 (4), 361 - 373

Mawer, K and Stanley, G (2011) Digital Play: Computer games and language aims, Peaslake: DELTA Publishing.

McChesney, K. & Aldridge, J. (2018). The relationships between school climate and adolescent mental health and wellbeing: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Educational Research. 88. 10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.012.

Murphy, V. & Unthia, A. (2015) A systematic review of intervention research examining English language and literacy development in children with English as an Additional Language (EAL). University of Oxford Dept of Education/Bell Foundation/Unbound Philanthropy

Oxley, E., & De Cat, C. (2021). A systematic review of language and literacy interventions in children and adolescents with English as an additional language (EAL). The Language Learning Journal, 49(3), 265-287.

NALDIC (2009) Teaching and learning of ICT to EAL learners in the primary phase, http://www.naldic.org.uk/Resources/NALDIC/Initial%20Teacher%20Education/Documents/EALandIC T.pdf

Ng, J. C., Lee, S. S., & Pak, Y. K. (2007). Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes: A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education. Review of Research in Education, 31, 95-130

Palmer, S. (2010). How to teach writing across the curriculum: Ages 8-14. Routledge.

Parke, T., Drury, R., Kenner, C., & Robertson, L. H. (2002). Revealing invisible worlds: Connecting the mainstream with bilingual children's home and community learning. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 2(2), 195-220

Pim, C (2010) How to Support Children Learning English as an Additional Language, Hyde: LDA

Purdy, J (2008) “Inviting conversation: meaningful talk about texts for English language learners”, Literacy 42 (1), 44 - 51

Schmitt, N. (2008) Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning, Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329-363 Strand, S. (2007) Minority Ethnic Pupils in the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE). Nottingham: DCSF

Strand, S., & Lindorff, A. (2020). English as an additional language: Proficiency in English, educational achievement and rate of progression in English language learning.

Swain, M. (2000) ‘The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue’, chapter 4 in J.P.Lantolf (ed), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, pp. 94 – 114, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Stuart, M. (2004). Getting Ready for Reading: A Follow-up Study of Inner City Second Language Learners at the End of Key Stage 1. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(1), 15 – 36

Teemant, A. (2014). A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Instructional Coaching for Teachers of Diverse Learners. Urban Education, 49(5), 574-604. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085913481362

Toohey, K. (2003) Learning English At School: Identity, Social Relations and Classroom Practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.). Harvard University Press

White, K., Lewis, K., & Fletcher-Campbell, F. (2006). Raising the Achievement of Bilingual Learners in Primary Schools: Evaluation of the Pilot/Programme. Nottingham: DCSF

Original guide sponsored by the University of Winchester, this revision sponsored by The University of Reading and Hampshire EMTAS.