Assessment: formative and classroom-based

Nikki Booth | View as single page | Feedback/Impact


Assessment Reform Group (1999) Assessment for learning - Beyond the black box, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge School of Education.

Bjork, R. and Bjork, E. (1992) A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation, In: A. Healey, S. Kosslyn and E. Siffrin (Eds.) From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of Wiliam K. Estes, (Vol. 2, pp. 35-67), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Black, P. and, Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and classroom learning, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 5(1), pp. 7-74.

Black. P. and Wiliam, D. (2018) Classroom assessment and pedagogy, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(6), 1-24.

Bloom, B. (1969) Some theoretical issues relating to educational evaluation, In: R. Tyler, (Ed.) Educational evaluation: New roles, new means: The 68th yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (part 2), Vol. 68(2). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 26-50.

Booth, N. (2017) What is formative assessment, why hasn't it worked in schools, and how can we make it better in the classroom? Impact - Journal for the Chartered College of Teaching, 1, pp. 27-29.

Booth, N. (2019) In-school summative and minute-by-minute formative assessment in the classroom, In: S. Capel, M. Leask and S. Younie (Eds.) Learning to teach in the secondary school (8th edition), Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Booth, N. (2023) Developing formative assessment practice for high-impact teaching (pp. 421-437). In: S. Capel, M. Leask, S. Younie, E. Hidson and J. Lawrence (eds.), Learning to teach in the secondary school (9th edition): A companion to school experience. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Broadfoot, P. (2008) An introduction to assessment, London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Brookhart, S., Stiggins, R., McTighe and Wiliam, D. (2019) The future of assessment practices: Comprehensive and balanced assessment systems, Available at: [Last accessed 28 July 2020].

Butler, D. and Winne, P. (1995) Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis, Review of Educational Research, 65(3), pp. 245-281.

Butler, R. (1988) Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation: The effects of task-involving and ego-involving evaluation on interest and performance, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58(1), pp. 1-14.

Clarke, S. (2005) Formative assessment in the secondary classroom, London, UK: Hodder and Stoughton.

Clarke, S. (2021) Unlocking learning intentions and success criteria. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.

Coe, R. (2013) Improving education: A triumph of hope over experience, Durham, UK: Centre for Education and Monitoring, Durham University.

Cronbach, L. (1971) Test validation. In: R. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement (2 ed., pp. 443-507), Washington DC: American Council on Education.

Department For Education (DfE) (2015) Final report of the commission on assessment without levels, London, UK: The Stationary Office.

Elawar, M. and Corno, L. (1985) A factorial experiment in teachers' written feedback on student homework: Changing teacher behaviour a little rather than a lot, Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(2), pp. 162-173.

Fautley, M. and Savage, J. (2008) Assessment for learning and teaching in secondary schools, Exeter, UK: Learning Matters Ltd.

Fuchs, L and Fuchs, D. (1986) Effects of systematic formative evaluation - a meta analysis, Exceptional Children, 53(3), pp. 199-208.

Goertz, M., Oláh, L., Nabors and Riggan, M. (2009) From testing to teaching: The use of interim assessments in classroom instruction (Vol. 65), Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

Hattie, J. and Clarke, S. (2019) Visible Learning Feedback, Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Kluger, A. and DeNisi, A. (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical view, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory, Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), pp. 254-284.

Leahy, S., Lyon, C., Thompson, M. and Wiliam, D. (2005) Classroom assessment: Minute-by-minute and day-by-day, Educational Leadership, 63(3), pp. 18-24.

Sadler, R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems, Instructional Science, 18, pp. 119-144.

Scriven, M. (1967) The methodology of evaluation. In: R. Tyler, R. Gangé and M. Scriven (Eds.) Perspectives of curriculum evaluation: Volume 1, pp. 39-83.

Stewart, W. (2012) Think you've implemented assessment for learning? Times Educational Supplement, Available from: [Last accessed 28 July 2020].

Swaffield, S. (2011) Getting to the heart of authentic assessment for learning, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18(4), pp. 433-449.

Wiliam, D. (2007) Comparative analysis of assessment practice and progress in the UK and USA, Presentation at Westminster Education Forum Seminar on Assessment, 10 October 2007.

Wiliam, D. (2014) Formative assessment and contingency in the regulation of learning processes, Paper presented in a Symposium entitled Towards a Theory of Classroom Assessment as the Regulation of Learning at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Philadelphia, PA: April.

Wiliam, D. (2018a) Embedded formative assessment (2nd ed.), Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Wiliam, D. (2018b) The handbook for embedded formative assessment, Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Wiliam, D. (2018c) What do we mean by assessment for learning? Available from: [Last accessed 28 July 2020].

Wiliam, D. and Leahy, S. (2015) Embedding formative assessment, West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences International.

Zimmerman, B. and Schunk, D. (2011) Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance, New York, NY: Routledge.