Further Reading

Exley, S., Ovenden-Hope, T. (2013) ‘Preparing a pathway of professional development for teacher educators in the lifelong learning sector ‘ Tean Journal 5 (2) July [Online]. Available at: https://ojs.cumbria.ac.uk/index.php/TEAN/index .



Apple, M.W. (2009) in Zeichner, K.M. (2009) Teacher Education and the struggle for social justice. Abingdon: Routledge


Ben-Peretz, M., Kleeman, S., Reichenberg, R. and Shimoni, S. (2010) Educators of educators: their goals, perceptions and practices, Professional Development in Education, (36) 1-2, pp. 111-129



Example 12 from research (FES) – Crawley (2014)

Crawley’s (2014) research included a literature review where the connections between theory, practice and workplaces was identified as an important issue in terms of the context and practicalities of the role of teacher educator, and within the overall pedagogy of teacher education. Studies of teacher education regularly featured the importance of this type of ‘connected practice’, and ‘connecting’ teacher education.


Example 11 from research – Murray and Male (2005)

Murray and Male (2005) carried out research on 28 teacher educators working in seven different institutions to contribute to ‘understanding the challenges new teacher educators face in establishing their professional identities as teachers of teachers and as scholars in HE’ (ibid: 125). The research found that moving into the role of teacher educator, even for those who were already recognised at ‘expert’ teachers, involved ways of making connections and recognising the place of those connections, or ‘shifting the lens of (their) teaching to re-analyse their


Example 10 from research (FES) Crawley (2014)

Crawley’s research included focus groups, an online questionnaire, and an evaluation of a CPD programme for teacher educators, and engaged over 250 participants. The conceptual framework which was developed to support analysis of the results included a number of key issues which had emerged from research including


Example 9 from research – Cochran Smith (2003)

Cochran Smith (2003) carried out research which analysed ‘four teacher educator communities in different contexts and entry points across the career lifespan’ (5). Cochran Smith reviews literature which supports the view that ‘the opportunity to engage in inquiry within a learning community may be a vital part of teachers’ and teacher educators’ ongoing education’ (ibid: 7).


Example 7 from research (FES) – Harkin (2005)

Harkin (2005) reports on research funded by a national Further Education infrastructure organisation which surveyed 243 FE teachers about their perceptions of the usefulness of the FE ITE they had received. 50 of the survey respondents were subsequently interviewed. Research, including the above study by Moon (1998) had already identified theory as a problematic area in English ITE, and participants in this research reinforced that perspective.


Example 6 from research – Moon (1998)

Moon (1998) carried out a review of ‘international perspectives on the initial education and training of teachers’ which addressed teacher education across some 10 countries, including the USA, France, the Netherlands and Germany. This was not a systematic review, but did include a wide range of research and programmes internationally. With respect to learning theory, Moon indicated that ‘In England, and in the USA, the Deweyian reflective practitioner, pragmatic tradition has come to dominate teacher education programmes.


Example 5 from research (FES) – Crawley (2014)

Crawley’s (2014) theoretical framework also included ‘modelling and golden moments’ (ibid: 278), and this also regularly featured in participants’ responses as an important pedagogical principle for TEds.

Modelling and the use of ‘golden moments’ is seen by TEds as an important contribution which enables the teachers they train to reflect on critical incidents and learn from them as reflective practitioners. Highlighting ‘golden moments’ in trainee’s own teaching can also contribute to a significant growth in confidence, and a step towards improved teaching.


Connecting theory, practice and workplaces

The multiplicity of contexts, content, theories and practices across education systems, particularly in the English FES, is a significant challenge for the teaching professional. Research has recognised how working to mediate these challenges is one of the most important aspects of teacher education. Crowe and Berry (2007), Davey (2013), Guyton (2000), Kitchen (2005a), Korthagen et al. (2006), Korthagen (2001), Kosnik (2001), Laws et al.



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