Making meaning from print requires the brain to use a complex array of cognitive strategies. Competent readers do this automatically without conscious effort. Learning to reading, requires we identify what our brains have learned automatically and teach children to do this consciously.

5 Essential Components of Reading

In this guide the five elements of reading were identified. These according to Armbruster et al. 2001 are:

Phonemic awareness





2) Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe: National Strategies, Curricula and Learning Outcomes

EE at School in Europe

Authors: Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency

Date: 2012


This comparative overview analyses information available on primary and secondary education in the Eurydice Network, representing 31 European countries. It has four chapters covering:

1. National strategies and action plans to encourage the integration of entrepreneurship education.

2. How entrepreneurship education is currently being addressed in national educational steering documents in terms of general approaches and subject curricula.

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