Online communities

Online reading challenges offer children opportunities to discuss their reading, connect with others and receive recommendations for future reading from other readers. Online reading communities make reading more social. Readers participate in online social networks in several ways. There are apps that can be used. Goodreads is simple and can be accessed by smartphone. Students can track their reading, set yearly targets for themselves and post reviews.

Areas for futher research

Research consistently falls short in reporting theoretical frameworks which in turn increases the gap between research and practice. It further increases the difficulty teachers face in matching interventions with student needs (Hodges et al., 2016).

 They recommend three areas for further research:

Reading in Primary Schools: Guide


Case studies

Case Study 1. Bourne Abbey Church of England Primary School, Lincolnshire


Making meaning from print requires the brain to use a complex array of cognitive strategies. Competent readers do this automatically without conscious effort. Learning to reading, requires we identify what our brains have learned automatically and teach children to do this consciously.

5 Essential Components of Reading

In this guide the five elements of reading were identified. These according to Armbruster et al. 2001 are:

Phonemic awareness





Primary Literacy

Nutbrown’s research (2006) informs us that parent-child conversations, how children experiment with words and rhythms, listening to and telling stories and pretend play provide important building blocks of family literacy. Literacy is a skill for life. It is the ability to read, write, speak and listen in a way that allows us to communicate effectively and make sense of the world. Lacking vital literacy skills holds a person back at every stage of their life.

Reading in English Primary schools

This section gives a brief history and overview of the key programmes used in Primary schools to promote reading.

National Literacy Strategy (1997+)

Reading in Primary schools

Reading is a complex cognitive skill that involves the extraction of meaning from printed or written text. It changes lives. Its transforming power is seen in promoting health and well-being. It builds creativity and imaginative skills. It promotes empathy and understanding. It makes a significant contribution to pupil attainment and closing the gap, especially for disadvantaged learners. It allows access to the whole curriculum and learning in Primary schools and remains one of life’s joys.

Inclusion and transitions to primary and secondary school

text forthcoming during 2021


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