# Dyscalculia: Single page view

## Dyscalculia

Evidence Background Signposting for further intervention/assessment Case studies |

## Dyscalculia: What the beginning teacher needs to know

This guide is designed to provide beginning teachers with a brief overview of current research in the field of dyscalculia and a range of strategies for identifying and supporting dyscalculic learners in the classroom. It also provides information and advice on when to signpost for further assessment and intervention.

## Websites

The following UK based websites provide evidence supporting the content of this MESH Guide.

## The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

This handbook brings together commissioned pieces by a range of influential, international authors from a variety of disciplines. More than fifty contributors have written about dyscalculia from a range of perspectives and have answered questions such as:

What are mathematics learning difficulties and disabilities?

What are the key skills and concepts for learning mathematics?

How will IT help, now and in the future?

What is the role of language and vocabulary?

How should we teach mathematics?

## References across this MESHGuide

DfES (2001). *The National Numeracy Strategy. Guidance to Support Learners with Dyslexia and Dyscalculia*. London. DfES

APA (1994), *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders* . Washington, DC, ed. 4. American Psychiatric Association

Moorcraft, P. (2014). *It just doesn’t add up*. Filament Publishing, Croydon, UK

Kaplan, B. et al ( 2001) *The Term Comorbidity Is Of Questionable Value In Reference To Developmental Disorders: Data And Theory,* Journal of learning Disabilities, Vol 34, No 6 pp555-565

Karagiannakis, G and Cooreman, A. (2014) *The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Maths Learning Difficulties,* Chapter 19. Routledge, London

DfES (200) *What works for children with mathematical difficulties? The effectiveness of intervention schemes*

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110202093118/http:/nationals...

**Books**

APA (1994), *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders*. Washington, DC, ed. 4. American Psychiatric Association

Babtie, P and Emerson, J (2015). *Understanding Dyscalculia and Numeracy Difficulties, *Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London

Bird Ronit (2011) *The Dyscalculia Resource Book* Sage Publications Ltd

Bird Ronit (2013) *Dyscalculia Toolkit: Supporting Learning Difficulties in Maths* Sage Publications Ltd

Butterworth, Brian; Yeo, Dorian (2004) *Dyscalculia Guidance: **Helping Pupils with Specific Learning Difficulties in Maths*; nfer Nelson

Chinn, Steve (2004) *The Trouble with Maths: A Practical Guide to Helping Learners with Numeracy Difficulties *London: Routledge Falmer

Chinn, Steve (2012) *More Trouble with Maths: **A complete guide to identifying and diagnosing mathematical difficulties;* Routledge

Chinn, Steve (2012) Maths Learning Difficulties, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia, publisher British Dyslexia Association

DfES (2001). *The National Numeracy Strategy. Guidance to Support Learners with Dyslexia and Dyscalculia*. London. DfES

Emerson, Jane and Babtie, Patricia (2013) The Dyscalculia Assessment; Bloomsbury

Emerson, Jane and Babtie, Patricia (2014) The Dyscalculia Solution; Bloomsbury

Hornigold Judy (2015) Dyscalculia Lesson Plans Books 1 and 2; Technology Teaching Systems, Limited

Hornigold Judy (2015) Dyscalculia Pocketbook publisher Teachers' Pocketbooks

Kaplan, B. et al (2001) *The Term Comorbidity Is Of Questionable Value In Reference To Developmental Disorders: Data And Theory,* Journal of learning Disabilities, Vol 34, No 6 pp555-565

Karagiannakis, G and Cooreman, A. (2014) *The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Maths Learning Difficulties,* Chapter 19

Moorcraft, P. (2014). *It just doesn’t add up*. Filament Publishing, Croydon, UK

## What is dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia is a specific learning difficulty that affects a person’s arithmetical ability. In terms of research it remains the baby of the specific learning difficulties family. There’s a wealth of knowledge and understanding about dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism, but much less is known or understood about dyscalculia.

Coined in the mid-20th century, the word dyscalculia has both Greek and Latin origins: the Greek prefix ‘dys’ means ‘badly’, while ‘calculia’, from the Latin ‘calculare’, means to count. So, literally dyscalculia means to count badly. The reality is much more complex than this.

**Common Difficulties**

People with dyscalculia may struggle with any or all of the following areas:

**Estimation** – being able to tell if an answer is reasonable or not.

**Short- and long-term memory **– difficulty remembering procedures in maths

**Time** – many children have difficulty in learning to tell the time, but this can persist in learners with dyscalculia. They can also have difficulty with appreciating the passage of time. So they may not be able to tell whether 1 minute or one hour has passed.

**Assessing numerical quantity** – eg when given two numbers a dyscalculic learner will have difficulty in identifying which is the larger.

**Money** – this can be a severe difficulty and often stems from a lack of understanding of place value. For example, not being able to appreciate that a £20 note will be sufficient to cover a £15.75 taxi fare.

**Performing calculations** – both in choosing the correct numerical operation and applying it correctly

**Sequencing** and **recognising patterns**

**Counting backwards** and **counting in steps**

**Direction/ orientation** – difficulty in understanding spatial orientation, confusion over left and right, leading to difficulties in map-reading and following directions

## Definitions of dyscalculia

As with dyslexia, there is no single commonly accepted definition of dyscalculia. The Department for Education and Science (DfES) describes it as:

‘ … *a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have a difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they may do so mechanically and without confidence’*

A more quantifiable definition, perhaps, is given by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) which sees dyscalculia as a mathematics disorder:

‘*As measured by a standardized test that is given individually, the patient's ***mathematical ability is substantially less than you would expect*** considering age, intelligence and education. This deficiency materially impedes academic achievement or daily living.’*

As with dyslexia, there is no single commonly accepted definition of dyscalculia. The population is far too heterogeneous.

The American Psychiatric Association (2013) defines Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) as:

*A specific learning disorder that is characterised by impairments in learning basic arithmetic** **facts, processing numerical magnitude and performing accurate and fluent calculations. *

*These difficulties must be quantifiably below what is expected for an individual’s chronological age, and must not be caused by poor educational or daily activities or by intellectual impairments.*

DfES (2001). *The National Numeracy Strategy. Guidance to Support Learners with Dyslexia and Dyscalculia*. London. DfES

APA (1994), *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders* . Washington, DC, ed. 4. American Psychiatric Association

## The impact of dyscalculia

The impact of dyscalculia is far reaching and can have a profound impact on daily life, especially work.

For example, some dyscalculic adults never learn to drive, because of the numerical demands of driving and map reading (although SAT NAVs can help a great deal here).

Dyscalculia can also lead to social isolation, due to an inability to be at the right place at the right time, or to understand the rules and scoring systems of games and sports.

It can have a severe impact on job prospects and promotional opportunities for those in work.

Personal finances and budgeting will also be an issue for people with dyscalculia. Research shows that adults with low numeracy earn on average £2,100 less per annum than adults with average or above numeracy. In the UK as a whole, it is estimated that low numeracy levels cost the UK £20 billion per year, largely due to poor productivity. (National Numeracy, 2014)

To have dyscalculia can be a very frustrating experience, but it does not mean that you will never achieve in life. It is, after all, a *specific* learning difficulty. Paul Moorcraft’s book ‘It just doesn’t add up’ is testament to what can be achieved despite having severe dyscalculia. Surprisingly, a number of mathematics professors could be described as dyscalculic, reminding us that this is a specific difficulty with arithmetic and not with every branch of mathematics.

Moorcraft, P. (2014). *It just doesn’t add up*. Filament Publishing, Croydon, UK

## Co-occurring difficulties

Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) is an umbrella term used to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties. SpLD affect the way information is learned and processed. They are neurological (rather than psychological), usually hereditary and occur independently of intelligence.

A range of studies have indicated high levels of overlap between dyscalculia and other SpLD. This has led to the assertion by Kaplan (2001) that ‘in developmental disorders, co-morbidity is the rule, not the exception’.

For an overview of the most common SpLD, see www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/educator/what-are-specific-learning-difficulties.

Short talks on a range of co-occurring difficulties are freely available at www.dystalk.com

Other useful websites:

Attention Deficit Disorder Association

Kaplan, B. et al ( 2001) *The Term Comorbidity Is Of Questionable Value In Reference To Developmental Disorders: Data And Theory,* Journal of learning Disabilities, Vol 34, No 6 pp555-565

## Current research into dyscalculia

Dyscalculia can affect different aspects of maths ability- leading to a variety of math profiles. Karagiannakis and Cooreman (2014) have identified four areas or subtypes. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty in all or maybe just one or two to these areas:

- Core Number
- Reasoning
- Memory
- Visual Spatial

**1. Core Number**

This particular sub type of dyscalculia will lead to difficulties with:

- Basic number sense, which is the ability to use and understand number and our number system
- Estimating, for example, being able to arrive at a rough idea of what the answer may be
- Assessing difference in numerical quantity, for example, understanding that 230 is ten times as much as 23 or that 9 is larger than 7
- Understanding and using mathematical symbols
- Understanding place value, for example being able to write 102 in response to hearing one hundred and two rather than writing 1002
- Placing numbers on a number line, for example , understanding that 5 would be placed in the middle of a number line from 0-10

**2. Reasoning:**

This particular sub type of dyscalculia will lead to difficulties with:

- Understanding mathematical concepts and relationships. For example, understanding that multiplication is repeated addition or that addition and subtraction are inverse operations
- Generalising and transferring information. For example, using the fact that 5 + 4 = 9 to work out that 50 + 40 = 90 or that 5 + 5 = 10
- Understanding multiple steps in complex procedures/algorithms
- Problem solving and decision making. For example, selecting the best method for solving a problem or deciding which operation to use when solving a word problem

**3. Memory**

This particular sub type of dyscalculia will lead to difficulties with:

- Remembering and retrieving numerical facts. For example, recall of number bonds to ten or times tables
- Understanding and recalling mathematical terminology. For example, terms like numerator and denominator
- Understanding word problems . To make sense of a word problem often requires you to hold information in your short term memory
- Performing mental calculations accurately. Mental arithmetic places great demands on the working memory
- Remembering and carrying out procedures as well as rules and formulae
- Keeping track of the steps in problem solving

**4. Visual Spatial**

This particular sub type of dyscalculia will lead to difficulties with:

- Recognising and understanding symbols. For example confusing x with +
- Interpreting visual representations of mathematical objects. For example being able to recognise the net of a square
- Placing numbers on a number line. For example, being able to place 75 in roughly the right place on a blank number line from 0-100
- Visualising geometric figures, such as 3 D shapes
- Interpreting graphs and tables. For example , having difficulty reading information from tables or understanding distance /time graphs

Karagiannakis, G and Cooreman, A. (2014) *The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Maths Learning Difficulties,* Chapter 19

## Identification

Please be aware that the indicators listed in this column are only intended to be used as a checklist to provide a basic indication of whether or not an individual may be at risk of dyslexia. If you identify a cluster of difficulties and strengths, your next step should be to consult the school Special Needs Co-ordinator (SENCo) so that appropriate and immediate support can be put in place (see Column 5: Signposting for further intervention / assessment)

## Pre-school level indicators

Preschoolers with dyscalculia may have trouble with maths skills like counting, sorting and organizing. For example:

Connecting symbols with numerical quantities- for example matching the number 3 to a plate with 3 biscuits on it

Sorting – grouping things by shape, size or colour

Time - difficulty appreciating the passage of time

## Primary level indicators

1.Delay in counting. Five to seven year-old dyscalculic children show less understanding of basic counting principles than their peers (eg that it doesn't matter which order objects are counted in).

2. Delay in using counting strategies for addition. Dyscalculic children tend to keep using inefficient strategies for calculating addition facts much longer than their peers.

3. Difficulties in memorizing arithmetic facts. Dyscalculic children have great difficulty in memorizing simple addition, subtraction and multiplication facts (eg 5 + 4 = 9), and this difficulty persists up to at least the age of thirteen.

These symptoms may be caused by two more fundamental difficulties, although more research is needed to be sure:

1. Lack of 'number sense'. Dyscalculic children may have a fundamental difficulty in understanding quantity. They are slower at even very simple quantity tasks such as comparing two numbers (which is bigger, 7 or 9?), and saying how many there are for groups of 1-3 objects. The brain areas which appear to be affected in dyscalculia are areas which are specialised to represent quantity.

2. Less automatic processing of written numbers. In most of us, reading the symbol '7' immediately causes our sense of quantity to be accessed. In dyscalculic individuals this access appears to be slower and more effortful. Thus dyscalculic children may have difficulty in linking written or spoken numbers to the idea of quantity.

Source About Dyscalculia

## Secondary level indicators

If a pupil is presenting a number of these difficulties, it is a clue that something is wrong and they are experiencing difficulties which will get in the way of them learning arithmetical skills.

**Language and Memory**

- Doesn’t seem to comprehend the precise meaning of the terms used in mathematics.
- Has difficulty reading mathematical terms.
- Doesn’t remember what the abbreviations for terms mean.
- Has difficulty comprehending questions or holding the ideas long enough to make sense of the request.

**Numbers**

- Has difficulty linking words and numbers.
- Doesn’t understand the concept of number ie 'threeness' and therefore may answer randomly with any number to a question.
- Has difficulty with sequences.
- Has difficulty with time eg telling the time, concepts of time passing such as yesterday, today, tomorrow.
- Reverses numbers.
- Has difficulty transferring from the concrete to abstract ideas.

**Work**

- Work is very messy and the columns do not line up.
- Methods are not stable and mistakes cannot be explained.
- May be ok with the tangible but cannot deal with concepts.
- Lacks confidence and avoids estimating and checking or other systematic ways of validating working methods.
- Has problem with place value.
- Has orientation problems eg left and right or vertical and horizontal.

**Confidence**

- Does not appear confident even with work which should be quite easy.
- Finds ways to avoid being in class, being exposed to arithmetical work.
- Displays stress or withdraws during mathematical lessons.
- Gets tired very easily when doing mathematical work.
- Worries about performance, time taken or being slow.

Source www.bdadyslexia.org.ukBDA

## Identification for adults

More information for adults can be found at

http://www.dyscalculia.org/diagnosis-legal-matters/guidance-for-17-years-old

## Online screeners

Dynamo Maths Profiler

This is the link for the dynamo maths profiler for learners aged 6-9

Dyscalculia Screener

This is the link to Brian Butterworth’s dyscalculia screener, suitable for learners aged 6-14

DyscalculiUM

This is a screener for adults and teenagers developed by Clare Trott at Loughborough University

## Dyscalculia Friendly classroom teaching

Recommended reading

The following books will support dyscalculia friendly teaching practices. The main message is to make sure that you are supporting your teaching with appropriate concrete manipulatives such as base ten materials, Cuisenaire rods, dot cards, Numicon etc

Chinn, Steve (2004) The Trouble with Maths: A Practical Guide to Helping Learners with Numeracy Difficulties London: Routledge Falmer

Chinn, Steve (2012) More Trouble with Maths: A complete guide to identifying and diagnosing mathematical difficulties Routledge

Maths Learning Difficulties, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia by Steve Chinn, published by the BDA

Dyscalculia Guidance : Helping Pupils with Specific Learning Difficulties in Maths by Brian Butterworth and Dorian Yeo (2004) nfer Nelson

Dyscalculia Lesson Plans Books 1 and 2 by Judy Hornigold published by TTS

Dyscalculia Pocketbook by Judy Hornigold published by Teacher Pocketbooks

The Dyscalculia Assessment by Jane Emerson and Patricia Babtie (2013) Bloomsbury

The Dyscalculia Solution by Jane Emerson and Patricia Babtie (2014) Bloomsbury

Understanding Dyscalculia and Numeracy Difficulties by Patricia Babtie and Jane Emerson, published by Jessica Kinglsey

Dyscalculia Toolkit: Supporting Learning Difficulties in Maths by Ronit Bird (2013) Sage Publications Ltd

The Dyscalculia Resource Book by Ronit Bird (2011) Sage Publications Ltd

## Top ten Tips for teaching children with dyscalculia

**1. Use concrete manipulative materials**

Invest in the right kinds of concrete materials and let your child play around with

them, experimenting and having fun with them. Most useful and versatile of all the

resources that I use with dyscalculic learners is a set of Cuisenaire rods. [Cuisenaire

rods are cuboid rods of wood or plastic, in ten fixed colours, ranging in length from

1 cm to 10 cm to represent the numbers from 1 to 10.] Other helpful materials are

chunky counters, Dienes blocks or other base-10 blocks, dice and dominoes.

**2. Play with dice and dominoes to improve recognition of spot patterns**

Play any games that incorporate the use of dice. Teach your child to recognise the

number patterns on the dice rather than having to rely on counting the spots one by

one after each new throw of the dice. Play domino games, too. Point out the

similarities between the dice patterns and the domino patterns. Encourage your child

to look for patterns inside patterns. For example, inside the traditional spot pattern

for the number 6 one can see two 3s, or three 2s, or the patterns of 4 and 2.

**3. Beware the ‘counting trap’**

Take care your child does not fall into the ‘counting trap’. This is a self-perpetuating

situation in which a child solves every fresh calculation by counting up or down in

ones because they know so few numeracy facts for certain. Meanwhile, they cannot

increase their store of known facts because the process of finding the answer to a

computation takes so much time and effort that, a) they can never be sure that the

answer is correct, and b) because by the time a solution is reached, the child no

longer connects the answer to the question. To help a child out of this vicious cycle,

focus on composing and decomposing small quantities into chunks, not into a

succession of single units. Play games and activities that highlight numbers being

built out of component chunks, not ones. Introduce as large a variety of games as

possible, in order to provide enough practice with components.

**4. Focus on games and activities, rather than worksheets**

It is not difficult to find, or invent, simple activities and games that target particular

misconceptions or points of difficulty. Activities present mathematics as a challenge

or a puzzle that needs to be solved in a practical manner. They allow children to

focus on one aspect at a time and to construct mathematical meaning for themselves

at their own rate of understanding. Games encourage children to revisit important

topics regularly, thereby developing some degree of automaticity, whilst maintaining

a high level of interest and enjoyment.

**5. Highlight the repeating decimal structure of the number system**

Help your child construct an accurate mental model of the decimal number system.

One way is by exploring number tracks. Another is by using base-ten blocks on place

value mats to build 2- and 3-digit numbers and to support step counting in 1s and

10s. Don’t always start a count at zero and switch back and forth between the step

sizes at random intervals. Try a short run of backward steps from time to time.

Extend the concrete step counting beyond 100, paying special attention to the

difficult boundaries between decades and hundreds.

12/09

**6. Take a step-by-step approach**

Break down each learning topic into the smallest possible incremental steps. Be

prepared to explore, repeat and rehearse each step many times before the child can

be expected to understand it well enough to use it as a foundation for the next step.

**7. Help children to construct visual mental models**

Encourage your child to use the concrete materials as a basis for creating pictures in

the mind. Discourage any attempt to use the resources mechanically, just to find an

answer. All work with sketches and diagrams should also be seen as a route to

learning or practising visualisation techniques.

**8. Explore the language of maths**

Explain mathematical terms carefully. Encourage your child to articulate their

thinking at every stage of any maths task. Broaden your child’s mathematical

vocabulary as much as possible, using a wide variety of common synonyms for basic

arithmetic operations. For example, synonyms for ‘subtract’ might include ‘minus’,

‘take away’, ‘less than’, ‘fewer than’, ‘decrease(d)’, ‘take(n) from’, ‘reduce(d)’,

‘difference’, etc.

**9. Don’t rush into abstract and written work**

Allow your child to spend plenty of time manipulating concrete materials before

anything is written down. Use mathematical notation to record only what your child

already fully understands. Use diagrams and sketches to support a gradual

transition between concrete and abstract work.

**10. Teach for understanding**

Memory problems are often associated with specific learning difficulties and can have

a severe impact on maths performance. For instance, a common phenomenon

amongst both dyscalculic and dyslexic learners is an inability to memorise

multiplication tables. Take care, therefore, to minimise the number of facts that your

child is expected to commit to memory. Take care also to restrict the number of

strategies your child is expected to master. Limit them to only those key strategies

with the widest applications. Instead of relying on rote-learning, teach children how

to use logic and reasoning to derive new facts and methods from those that they

already know and understand.

Source Ronit Bird

## SEND Code of practice and whole school approach

Statutory guidance for schools in England on duties, policies and procedures relating to children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) is contained with the SEND Code of Practice (2014).

With maths teaching it is important for schools to create an environment where learners feel safe to explore their ideas and strategies without fear of feeling ‘stupid’ if they get they answer wrong. Moving away from a procedure and answer focused way of teaching to a more exploratory and problem solving approach can also help to alleviate maths anxiety

## Supporting dyscalculic learners with word problems

One of the most effective ways to support dyscalculic learners when tacking word problems is to use the bar modeling method. This is a very common method in countries such as Singapore and China and helps the learner to visualise the maths. The model shows them which operation they need to use to solve the problem and what steps they need to take.

More information can be found from

## Assistive technology

The British Dyslexia Association New Technologies Committee webpages provide information and reviews of the latest products designed to help dyscalculic people.

Assistive technologies to help with a range of difficulties are explored on Dyslexia Action’s webpages.

Recommended Apps

A dyscalculia friendly calculator

Bar modelling apps

Other useful websites

## Effective Intervention; What works for children with maths difficulties

Although archived now, the following is a very useful government publication.

What works for children with mathematical difficulties? The effectiveness of intervention schemes

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110202093118/http:/nationals...

## Continuing Professional Development

Teachers who are interested in becoming a specialist dyslcalculia teacher or dyscalculia assessor can find information about training courses and professional accreditation on the BDA, Dyslexia Action, Edge Hill University and Learning Works websites.

The BDA also offer a Level 2 accredited 3 day Dyscalculia Course

## Seeking further advice

When a pupil fails to thrive or make progress in spite of receiving a well-founded intervention programme, or when a screening test indicates a high probability of dyscalculia, a full diagnostic assessment should be considered.

Diagnostic assessments should always be conducted by a properly qualified, certified assessor. This will be either an Educational Psychologist or an AMBDA qualified specialist teacher. For advice on finding an assessor in the UK, see the BDA website or the PATOSS Tutor/Assessor Index.

Assessments are provided by the BDA Dyslexia Action and PATOSS

## Professional training courses

Teachers who are interested in becoming a specialist dyscalculia teacher or dyscalculia assessor can find information about training courses and professional accreditation on the BDA, Dyslexia Action, Edge Hill University and Learning Works websites.

The BDA also offer a Level 2 accredited 3 day Dyscalculia Course.

## Exam provisions

Children and young people in the UK who are identified as having SEN or SpLD are entitled to access arrangements and reasonable adjustments during exams. These adjustments range from additional time in exams to the provision of a scribe/reader or computer based assistance.

Details of these adjustments are published each year by the Joint Council for Qualifications ( JCQ and are freely available online

## Links to case studies

The following link details some case studies of people with dyscalculia

http://beatdyscalculia.com/tag/beat-dyscalculia-case-studies/

http://www.dynamomaths.co.uk/DynamoCaseStudies2.html?submenuheader=2

https://dyscalculia.advancelearningzone.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=4

Recommended reading: Paul Moorcraft’s book ‘ It just doesn’t add up’, published by Filament Publishing

## Strength of Evidence

Although there is not as much research into dyscalculia as there is for dyslexia, there is still a substantial body of research in this area and some strategies will work for some children and some for others. Teachers are advised to consider the advice here in the light of the context in which they are teaching and then to make their own professional judgements about how to work with the individual students they have – always seeking advice from specialists if possible.

## Transferability

Dyscalculia is a specific learning difficulty that occurs worldwide and is not more prevalent in one country than another. The research and strategies referred to will be applicable whatever your country of origin. However, the references to assessment and further professional development are UK based.

## Editor’s comments

Around 6% of the population are dyscalculic. This means that in every class of 30 pupils, there are likely to be 2 children who will experience difficulties associated with dyscalculia.

The advice in this guide sets a minimum standard of knowledge required to begin to identify and support these children effectively. Dyscalculia trained specialist teachers have an important role in helping schools to set up whole school dyscalculia friendly practices and training, including effective classroom teaching, environment and policies, and effective screening and intervention. Training should include all teachers knowing when to refer the child for further specialist assessment and intervention where appropriate.

## Areas for further research

Please see: Dyscalculia – An Overview of Research on Learning Disability

Teresa Guillemot Teacher Education Programme, Mathematics and Computing toc99001@student.mdh.se

## Online community

Twitter @dyscalculiainfo